書籍:愛的400句箴言 Book: 400 Sayings about Love

愛的四百句箴言101~150句(3)

《愛的四百句箴言》 St. Maximus the confessor著 101至150首 《400 sayings about love》 by St. Maximus the confessor SECOND 100 about love 101-150 1、一個真正愛上帝的人,必定能夠一心不亂的祈禱;一個投入祈禱而一心不亂的人,必定是真正愛上帝的人。然而,一個將心思完全投注於世俗事務的人,ㄧ定無法一心不亂的祈禱;由此可知,熱衷於世俗事物的人,並不是一個愛上帝的人。 1. The one who truly loves God also prays completely undistracted, and the one who prays completely undistracted also truly loves God. But the one who has his mind fixed on any earthly thing does not pray undistracted; therefore the one who has his mind tied to any earthly thing does not love God.

 

 

《愛的四百句箴言》
St. Maximus the confessor著
101至150首

《400 sayings about love》
by St. Maximus the confessor
SECOND 100 about love
101-150

 

1、一個真正愛上帝的人,必定能夠一心不亂的祈禱;一個投入祈禱而一心不亂的人,必定是真正愛上帝的人。然而,一個將心思完全投注於世俗事務的人,ㄧ定無法一心不亂的祈禱;由此可知,熱衷於世俗事物的人,並不是一個愛上帝的人。
1. The one who truly loves God also prays completely undistracted, and the one who prays completely undistracted also truly loves God. But the one who has his mind fixed on any earthly thing does not pray undistracted; therefore the one who has his mind tied to any earthly thing does not love God.

 

2、我們的心靈之所以會在感官的世界內蹉跎光陰,是因為它尚未擺脫情欲(例如:欲望、悲傷、憤怒、怨恨);除非我們的心靈能夠鄙棄世俗的事物,否則它將無法超脫情欲的束縛。
2. The mind which dallies on a thing of sense certainly has some passion about it, such as desire or sorrow or anger or resentment; and unless he disdains the thing he cannot be freed from that passion.

 

3、當心靈被情欲所動搖,開始執著於物質界的事物,心靈就會與上帝分離,而完全投注於世俗事物當中。然而,如果我們的心靈讓上帝之愛作主,就能夠擺脫情欲的束縛,上帝之愛也會勸服我們的心靈,使它不僅僅超脫感官界的一切事物,甚至還能超脫我們短暫的俗世生命。
3. When the passions hold sway over a mind they bind it together with material things, and separating it from God make it to be all‐engrossed in them. But when love of God is in control, it releases it from the bonds and persuades it to think beyond not only things of sense but even this transient life of ours.

 

4、遵守誡命的目的,是要讓我們以單純的心念來思索一切事物;閱讀與靜觀的目的,是要讓我們的心靈澄淨,超脫於任何物質界的有形事物;如果能夠遵守誡命,又能閱讀與靜觀,一心不亂的祈禱將隨之而來。
4. The purpose of the commandments is to make simple the thoughts of things; the purpose of reading and contemplation is to render the mind clear of any matter or form; from this ensues undistracted prayer.

 

5、如果我們的心靈想要完全超脫情欲,達到圓滿的解脫與自在,並且投入祈禱而一心不亂,光靠積極的態度是不夠的,還要從事各種靈性靜觀。積極的態度使心靈擺脫瞋恚,達到自我節制的境界,而靈性靜觀則使心靈擺脫健忘與無知,如此心靈才能如實祈禱。
5. The active way does not suffice by itself for the perfect liberation of the mind from the passions to allow it to pray undistracted unless various spiritual contemplations also relieve it. The former frees the mind only from incontinence and hatred while the latter rid it also of forgetfulness and ignorance, and in this way it will be able to pray as it ought.

 

6、純淨的祈禱有兩種終極狀態,其中一種與積極的生活一致,另一種與靜觀的生活一致。第一種終極狀態,是由靈魂對上帝的敬畏而起,也是由真誠正直的希望而起;第二種終極狀態,是由神性渴望與完全淨化而起。前者的特徵在於,心靈不再熱衷俗世,且遠離一切對俗世的執著,就好像上帝在心中真實的臨在,使心靈在祈禱中一心不亂。後者的特徵在於,心靈在祈禱的開端,完全被無限的神性之光包圍,此時心靈的意識已經不再專注於自我或他人,而完全專注於那個帶來愛與光的「祂」。此時,心靈如果完全專注於上帝的特質,就能領受上帝清澄明晰的形象。
6. There are two supreme states of pure prayer, one corresponding to those of the active life, the other to the contemplatives. The first arises in the soul from the fear of God and an upright hope, the second from divine desire and total purification. The marks of the first type are the drawing of one’s mind away from all the world’s considerations, and as God is present to one, as indeed he is, he makes his prayers without distraction or disturbance. The marks of the second type are that at the very onset of prayer the mind is taken hold of by the divine and infinite light and is conscious neither of itself nor of any other being whatever except of him who through love brings about such brightness in it. Then, when it is concerned with the properties of God, it receives impressions of him which are clear and distinct.

 

7、一個人如果真心喜愛某件事物,一定會盡力除去任何阻礙得到它,並且小心守護不讓任何人奪走它。由此可證,一個真心愛上帝的人,一定會在純淨的祈禱中深耕,盡力擺脫一切情欲的阻礙。
7. What anyone loves he surely holds on to, and looks down on everything that hinders his way to it so as not to be deprived of it. And the one who loves God cultivates pure prayer and throws off from himself every passion which hinders him.

 

8、自私為情欲之源,一個完全擺脫自私的人,就能在上帝的幫助之下,脫離憤怒、苦惱、嫉妒…等情欲。然而,一個人如果受到自私的控制,即使心中不情願,也會被情欲所傷。因此我們可以說,對肉身而言,自私就是情欲。
8. The one who throws off self-love, the mother of the passions, will very easily with God’s help put aside the others, such as anger, grief, grudges, and so on. But whoever is under the control of the former is wounded, even though unwillingly, by the latter. Self-love is the passion for the body.

 

9、基於這五個理由,無論別人如何對你,你都會愛著他們:(1)由於上帝的緣故:德性高尚的人,平等地愛著每一個人,而一個德性還沒達到高尚境界的人,則愛慕著德性高尚的人;(2)出於自然的天性:就好像父母親愛子女,子女也愛著父母親一般;(3)由於虛榮心的作祟:一個受到讚美的人,就會愛著那些讚美他的人;(4)由於貪心的作祟:一個人愛著某個有錢人,因為他想從他身上獲得金錢;(5)為了身體的享樂:一個人為了身體的享樂而去愛,就會甘願成為自己的口腹或生殖器的奴僕。以上的五種愛,第一種是值得讚揚的。第二種是中性的,不好也不壞。其餘三種,都是屬於情欲的。
9. On account of these five reasons men love one another whether to their praise or blame: for God’s sake, as when the virtuous person loves everyone and the one not yet virtuous loves the virtuous person; or for natural reasons, as parents love their children and vice versa; or out of vainglory, as the one who is honored loves the one who honors him; or for greed, as the one who loves a rich man for what he can get; or for the love of pleasure, as the one who is a servant of his belly or genitals. The first of these is praiseworthy, the second is neutral, and the rest belong to the passions.

 

10、如果在你心中,有些人讓你厭惡,有些人讓你不愛也不恨,有些人讓你喜歡,還有些人,讓你強烈地愛著。從你的偏心就可以看出,你的愛跟「圓滿的愛」還差得很遠,因為,一個擁有圓滿的愛的人,會平等地愛著每一個人。
10. If you hate some people and some you neither love nor hate, while others you love only moderately and still others you love very much, know from this inequality that you are far from perfect love, which lays down that you must love everyone equally.

 

11、「斷絕惡念,一心行善。」這句話的意思是要我們,打擊敵人、消滅情欲、廉潔自守,以免情欲增長。另一方面,我們應該要努力奮鬥、養成美德、保持警醒,隨時守護自心的善行。這句話也可以「實踐」與「持守」二詞來詮釋。
11. “Decline from evil and do good.” That is, do battle with your enemy to diminish the passions, then keep sober lest they increase. Or again, do battle to acquire virtues, and then remain watchful in order to guard them. This is also what is meant by “working” and “keeping.”

 

12、那些得到上帝允許而試探我們的人,可能會進入我們的靈魂,激起我們的情欲,擾亂我們的性情,蒙蔽我們的理性,以痛苦圍攻我們的肉身,或者掠奪我們的財產物。
12. Those who tempt us with God’s permission either arouse the lusts of our soul or stir up our temper or darken our reason, or encompass the body with pain, or plunder our material goods.

 

13、惡魔不是誘惑我們,就是去尋找那些不敬畏主的人,並且增強他們的力量來對抗我們:考量到前者,當我們單獨的時候,應該要遠離惡魔,以免他們誘惑我們,就好像他們曾在荒漠中誘惑我們的主;考量到後者,我們應該要避免與那些人接觸,因為惡魔藉著他們來打擊我們,就好像惡魔藉著法利賽人來誘惑我們的主。面對這兩種情況,我們都應該要站穩立場,奮力反擊。
13. Either the demons tempt us themselves or they equip those who do not fear the Lord against us: themselves, when we are alone, away from others, just as they tempted the Lord in the desert; through others, when we associate with them, as they tempted the Lord through the Pharisees. It is for us to look to our model and beat them back on both fronts.

 

14、當心靈在上帝之愛中不斷提昇,不敬神的惡魔,就會開始誘惑它,使它對神升起輕視心,一般人的心中不可能會升起這樣的思想,除非他們認惡魔為父,聽從惡魔的引誘。他們之所以對神不敬,是出於嫉妒心,因為他們嫉妒別人可以成為上帝的朋友,所以自暴自棄,開始對神不敬,這樣他們就永遠不敢藉由每日的祈禱接近神。儘管如此,惡魔的計謀絕對無法得逞,因為,這些誘惑只會讓我們的心更堅定。在與惡魔打攻防戰時,我們在上帝的愛中,將變得更坦然、更虔誠。「願他的劍,紮透他的心,願他的弓,被完全粉碎」。
14. When the mind begins to make progress in the love of God, the demon of blasphemy begins to tempt him and suggest to him such thoughts as no man but only the devil their father could invent. He does this out of envy for the friend of God, that coming to despair at having such thoughts he no longer dares to approach God in his usual prayer. Nevertheless, the accursed one derives no profit from his plan but rather makes us more steadfast. For engaging in offensive and defensive battle, we become more proven and more sincere in the love of God. “May his sword pierce his heart and may his bows be shattered.”

 

15、心靈透過感官所感知到的事物,與自然界是和諧一致的。因此,心靈不是惡,自然知識、感官的事物也不是惡,因為,那些都是上帝的功業。那麼什麼是惡呢?很顯然的,惡就是情欲的流露,如果我們的心靈時時保持警覺,就不會讓情欲和惡存在。
15. In applying itself to visible things the mind knows them in accordance with nature through the medium of the senses, so that neither is the mind evil, nor is natural knowledge, nor the things, nor the senses, for these are all works of God. What then is evil? Evidently it is the passion of the natural representation, which does not have to exist in our use of representations if the mind is watchful.

 

16、情欲違背了靈魂的自然本性,它會引起非理性的愛,讓我們在不知不覺中,為了物質界的事物升起瞋恚心。舉例來說,情欲可能會使人對食物、女人、財富、榮耀…等物質界的事物升起非理性的貪愛,也可能使人心生瞋恚。
16. Passion is a movement of the soul contrary to nature either toward irrational love or senseless hate of something or on account of something material. For example, toward irrational love of food, or a woman, or wealth, or passing glory or any other material thing or on their account. Or else it can be toward a senseless hate of any of the preceding things we spoke of, or on account of any one.

 

17、再者,道德的敗壞,是起於思想的濫用,這也會導致事物被濫用。舉例來說,對男人而言,與妻子親密最有意義的作用,應該是生育,不該把焦點放在「享樂」上面,因為,這樣做很容易將男人與女人錯誤的關係,視為是正當的。同樣的道理可以運用在其他的事情上。
17. Or again, vice is the mistaken use of ideas from which follows the abuse of things. For example, in what concerns woman, the proper use of intercourse is its purpose of procreation. So the one who concentrates on the pleasure is in error as to its use by considering as good what is not good. Therefore such a person misuses a woman in having intercourse. The same holds true for other objects and representations.

 

18、當惡魔進入你的心中,趕走貞節的意念,放入姦淫的意念時,你應該要以淚眼懇求主:「姦淫的念頭已經瀰漫我的心,將貞節的意念趕走,我祈求你,拯救我脫離惡念。」然後,你就會得到平安。
18. When the demons have banished chastity from your mind and surrounded you with thoughts of fornication, then say to the Master with tears, “They have banished me and now they have surrounded me; my joy, deliver me from those who surround me.” And you will be safe.

 

19、姦淫的惡魔令人萬般苦惱,他會猛烈攻擊那些與情欲戰鬥的人,尤其當他們鬆懈了或是與女人接觸的時後,歡愉的溫柔使他們漫不經心,惡魔就會伺機進入他們心中竊取寶物。尤其,當夜深人靜的時候,惡魔會以回憶攻擊心靈、煽動肉體,並且以各種方式引誘心靈去犯罪。如果你不想讓惡魔留在你心中,你應該要禁食、守夜和努力工作,並且在受上帝祝福的隱修生活中,熱切地祈禱。
19. The demon of fornication is oppressive, and he violently attacks those who contend against passion. Especially does he do this in their careless living and in their contact with women. For imperceptibly in the softness of pleasure he steals upon the mind and then assails it through the memory when it is in quiet. He inflames the body and presents various forms to the mind to provoke its consent to the sin. If you do not want these things to remain in you, take up fasting and hard work and vigils and blessed solitude with assiduous prayer.

 

20、惡魔會尋找我們的靈魂,並且藉由情欲,誘使靈魂在思想或行為上犯罪。因此,當惡魔發現我們的心靈不夠敏銳時,就會使我們陷入羞愧與困惑中;然而,當惡魔發現我們的心靈完全投入靈性靜觀時,他們就會因羞恥而馬上離去。
20. Those who are ever seeking our soul do so through passionate thoughts in order to involve it in some sin of thought or deed. When therefore they find that the mind is not receptive, then they will be put to shame and confusion; and when they find it devoted to spiritual contemplation, then they will be quickly turned back and disgraced.

 

21、一個人如果為了神聖的目標而努力,並且為心靈施塗聖油,去除內心的情欲,這個人就具備了擔任「職事」的特質。一個人如果以真正的知識點亮心靈,徹底丟棄心中的偽知識,這個人就具備了擔任「神父」的特質。一個人如果能夠禮敬聖三位一體,得到三位一體的知識,並且以此神聖馨香,使心靈達到完美的境界,這個人就具備了擔任「主教」的特質。
21. The one who anoints his mind for the sacred contests and drives away passionate thoughts from it possesses the character of a deacon. The one who illumines it with knowledge of beings and obliterates counterfeit knowledge possesses that of a priest. Finally, the one who perfects it with the holy perfume of the knowledge of a worshiper of the Holy Trinity possesses that of a bishop.

 

22、當我們遵守上帝的誡命,消滅心中的情欲時,惡魔就會變得軟弱。隨著我們情欲的超脫,惡魔終會被消滅,因為,他們再也找不到任何事物,可以讓他們獲利,也找不到任何戰鬥的對象。這也是這段文字的真義「在你面前,他們將變得軟弱」。
22. The demons become weak when through the commandments the passions are diminished in us. And they perish when finally they are obliterated through detachment of soul, since they no longer find anything by which they might gain and do battle against it. And this is surely the meaning of “They shall be weakened and perish before your face.”

 

23、有些人戒除情欲是出於心中的恐懼,有些人是出於虛榮心;有些人則是出於自律;還有些人,是出於心中的神性審判。
23. Some men abstain from the passions out of human fear; others out of vainglory; others again out of self-control; still others are freed from the passions by the divine judgments.

 

24、上主的聖言,不出這四個範疇:誡命、指導、威脅、承諾。正因為上主的聖言,我們忍受各種煎熬,諸如:進食、守夜、以地為床、勤奮工作、服務他人、甘願受辱、發羞恥心、忍受折磨與死亡…等。就好像聖經所言:「我借著你嘴唇的話自己謹守,不行於兇暴人的路徑。」
24. All the Lord’s words are embraced in these four: commandments, instruction, threats, promises. Because of them we endure every hardship such as fastings, vigils, sleeping on the ground, hard work and stress in the service of others, outrages, disgrace, tortures, death, andthe like. As the Scripture says, “For the sake of the words of your lips I have kept hard ways.”

 

25、「自律」的回報,是不執著的心,而「信仰」的回報,是知識。不執著的心,使我們有敏銳的覺性,而知識使我們愛上帝。
25. The reward of self-mastery is detachment and that of faith is knowledge. And detachment gives rise to discernment while knowledge gives rise to love for God.

 

26、一個在現實生活中獲致成功的心靈,就會在謹慎中進取;一個活在靜觀之中的心靈,就會在知識中進取。因為,前者使一個在靈性掙扎中的人,得到敏銳的洞察力,能夠認清行為是美善或墮落;而後者則使人瞭解一切精神的與肉體的事物背後的原理。最後,心靈將乘著愛的翅膀,超越先前的客觀事實,獲得領受神學恩典的資格,並且透過聖靈,與上帝合一,在人類心靈能達到的範圍中,了解自己的本質。
26. The mind that has succeeded in the active life advances in prudence; the one in the contemplative life, in knowledge. For to the former it pertains to bring the one who struggles to a discernment of virtue and vice, while to the latter, to lead the sharer to the principles of incorporeal and corporeal things. Then at length it is deemed worthy of the grace of theology when on the wings of love it has passed beyond all the preceding realities, and being in God it will consider the essence of himself through the Spirit, insofar as it is possible to the human mind.

 

27、當你試著去認識上帝,卻找不到任何有關上帝存在的道理,這是因為人類的心智,或是在上帝之後才出現的其他存有(受造物),都無法發現這個道理。與其不斷追問上帝存在的道理,倒不如盡你所能地來思考關於上帝的一切事情,例如:上帝的永恆不朽、廣大無邊、善、智慧與大能,諸如創造、主宰和審判受造物…等。如果一個人能找出這些事背後的道理,那麼他就是一位偉大的神學家了。
27. When you intend to know God do not seek the reasons about his being, for the human mind and that of any other being after God cannot discover this. Rather, consider as you can the things about him, for example his eternity, immensity, infinity, his goodness, wisdom, and power which creates, governs, and judges creatures. For that person among others is a great theologian if he searches out the principles of these things, however much or little.

 

28、一個知行合一的人是有力量的,因為,他熄滅了貪欲,征服了怒火。知行合一指的是他能讓心智振翅高飛,飛出重圍,向上帝而去。
28. He is a powerful man who couples knowledge with action; for by the latter he extinguishes lust and subdues anger, and by the former he gives wings to the mind and flies off to God.

 

29、當主耶穌這麼說:「我與父原本為一。」他是在表現實質的身份。而當他再一次這麼說:「我在父裡面,父也在我裡面」之時,他指出了聖子與聖父的位格,是不可分裂的。也因為如此,將聖子從聖父分開的三神論者,才會處處碰壁。如果聖子和聖父永遠並存,卻是彼此分裂的個體,就會迫使三神論者認為聖子並不是從聖父中生的,而落入三個神或三個來源的深淵之中。或者,三神論者會說上帝依然是聖父所生,卻堅持聖子和聖父是獨立的個體,最終就會得到這樣的推論:聖子雖與聖父永遠共存,但上帝卻受限於時間的限制,時間才是真正的主宰者。依據偉大的神學家Gregory的說法:我們有必要同時保有一個上帝與三個位格,並且確立每個位格的獨立性。就如同他告訴我們的,上帝是「有所區別卻不分裂」、「一體而有差別」的。也因為如此,這種既是「分離」又是「合一」的特性,是非常特別而殊勝的。對我們來說,能夠同時與他人合一,彼此又是獨一無二的個體,就好像聖子和聖父那樣,還有什麼比這更殊勝的呢?
29.When the Lord says, “The Father and I are one,” he is signifying identity of substance. And when he says again, “I am in the Father and the Father is in me,” he indicates the inseparability of the Persons. Therefore the Tritheists in separating the Son from the Father rush in with cliffs all around. For either they say that the Son is coeternal with the Father but separate one from the other and so are compelled to say that he was not begotten of him, and fall off the cliff saying that there are three Gods and three origins, or else they say that he was begotten of him, but insisting on separating are compelled to say that he is not coeternal with the Father and make subject to time the very master of time. For it is necessary both to preserve the one God and to confess the three persons, each one in his individuality, according to the great Gregory. For as he tells us, God is “divided” yet “without division,” and “united” yet “with distinction.” In this way both the division and the union are extraordinary. But what is so extraordinary in a man being both united with and separated from a man, as the Son to the Father, and nothing more?

 

30、一個擁有完美的愛並達到絕對超然的人就會明白,人與我、信徒與非信徒、奴僕與主人、男女之間,是沒有任何差別的。只要能夠超脫欲情的暴力,洞察人類唯一的本質,就能使人以恭敬心平等地對待每一個人。因為在他的心中,沒有希臘人和猶太人之分,也沒有男女之分,更沒有奴僕主人之分,基督就是一切,在一切之中。
30. The one who is perfect in love and has reached the summit of detachment knows no distinction between one’s own and another’s, between faithful and unfaithful, between slave and freeman, or indeed between male and female. But having risen above the tyranny of the passions and looking to the one nature of men he regards all equally and is equally disposed toward all. For in him there is neither Greek nor Jew, neither male nor female, neither slave nor freeman, but Christ is everything and in everything.

 

31、自從情欲嵌入靈魂之後,惡魔就開始利用這些情欲的基礎,在我們內心激起情欲的邪念。接著,這些想法對我們的心靈開戰,迫使它漸漸孤立,最後接受了「罪」。當惡魔戰勝了我們的心靈,就會帶領它朝向罪的念頭前進,當這一切爭戰都完結時,人的心靈就好像囚犯一樣,不得不將這些罪的念頭一一實行。最後,這些藉著思想毀壞我們的靈魂的惡魔,就會從中撤退。在我們心中,只剩下罪惡的偶像(假神),這就好像我們的主所說的:「當你們看見那引致荒涼的可憎之像立在聖地上,誦讀的人須要了悟阿。」人的心靈是神聖的地方,是上帝的聖堂,而惡魔卻藉由情欲的念頭,使這聖地荒蕪,並立起罪惡的偶像(假神)。這些事已在歷史中上演,我想,沒有任何一個讀過弗拉維奧•約瑟夫斯的著作的人會懷疑這個論點。還有一些人認為,當反基督論者出現時,也會出現這些現象。
31. From the passions embedded in the soul the demons take their starting base to stir up passionate thoughts in us. Then, by making war on the mind through them they force it to go along and consent to sin. When it is overcome they lead it on to a sin of thought, and when this is accomplished they finally bring it as a prisoner to the deed. After this, at length, the demons who have devastated the soul through thoughts withdraw with them. In the mind there remains only the idol of sin about which the Lord says, “When you see the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place, let him who reads understand.” Man’s mind is a holy place and a temple of God in which the demons have laid waste the soul through passionate thoughts and set up the idol of sin. That these things have already happened in history no one who has read Josephus can, I think, doubt, though some say that these things will also happen when the Antichrist comes.

 

32、有三件事可以使我們變得更善良:天性的傾向、神聖的天使、美善的意志。第一、天性的傾向,譬如:我們希望別人怎麼對待我們,我們就要怎麼對待別人,還有,當我們看到某人的悲傷或需要幫助時,就會自然地生起惻隱之心。第二、神聖的天使,譬如:當我們實踐善行的時後,就會得到他人的協助,而獲得成功。第三、美善的意志,當我們有能力辨別善惡時,就會選擇善。
32. There are three things that move us to the good: natural tendencies, the holy angels, and a good will. First the natural tendencies, as when what we wish men do to us and we likewise do to them; or as when we see someone in distress and need and we naturally take pity. Second, the holy angels, when for instance we are moved to some good deed and obtain their helpful assistance and are successful. Finally a good will, because when we discern good from evil, we choose the good.

 

33、同樣地,也有三件事會讓我們變得更邪惡:情欲、惡魔、邪惡意志。第一、情欲,也就是不合理地貪求某些事物,例如:在不該吃飯或不需要吃飯的時候吃飯,或者,並非為了繁衍後代而貪求女人,或是貪求一個在法律上不屬於我們的事物;又如:我們對那些攻擊我們或傷害我們的人,感到忿怒或悲傷…等。第二、惡魔,他們總是等待機會,在我們粗心之時,突然猛力攻擊我們,激起我之前說過的那些情欲。第三、邪惡的意志,好比我們明知這是善的,但卻偏愛惡的。
33. Likewise there are three things that move us to evil: passion, the demons, and a bad will. First passion, as when we desire an object beyond reason, such as food outside the time or need, a woman outside the purpose of procreation or one not lawfully ours; or again when we are angered or grieved, for instance against the one who offends or hurts us. Second, the demons, as when they wait for the moment of our carelessness and suddenly set upon us with much violence to rouse the passions of which we spoke, and similar things. Finally, a bad will, such as when while knowing the good we prefer evil.

 

34、實踐美德的回報,就是超然的心和通達事理的知識。因為這兩項禮物已經變成我們在天國的守護神了,就好像情欲與無知是永恆刑罰的贊助者一樣。因此,如果一個人想要追求美德,卻不顧人類的光榮,只知向外追求,而不反求諸己,實在應該聽聽聖經怎麼說:「你們求而無所得,因為你們妄求。」
34. The reward for the labors of virtue is detachment and knowledge. For these become our patrons in the kingdom of heaven just as the passions and ignorance are the patrons of eternal punishment. Thus the one who seeks these out of human glory and not for their own good should hear the Scripture, “You ask but do not receive because you ask wrongly.”

 

35、人類做了許多高貴的事,然而,有時候卻因為某些理由,使得這些事並不真的那麼高貴。舉例來說:禁食、守夜、祈禱、唱誦聖歌、布施、款待客人…等,都是高貴的行為,然而,如果這些美德是出於虛榮心,就一點價值也沒有了。
35. There are many things done by men which are noble in themselves but still because of some reason are not noble. For example, fasts and vigils, prayer and psalmody, almsgiving and hospitality are noble in themselves, but when they are done out of vainglory they are no longer noble.

 

36、上帝會探究我們做每一件事的意圖,無論我們是為了祂而做或是為了其它動機。
36. God searches the intention of everything that we do, whether we do it for him or for any other motive.

 

37、當你聽到聖經說:「你照著各人所行的報應他」就應當知道,上帝雖會獎賞善行,但卻不會獎賞那出於邪惡動機的善行,無論那些善行看起來有多麼美好。上帝的獎賞,是那些動機完全純正的善行。因為上帝的審判,看的並不是你做了什麼,而是做這事的動機。
37. When you hear the Scripture saying, “You will render to each one according to his works,” know that God will reward good works but not those done apart from a right intention even if they appear good, but precisely those done with a right intention. For God’s judgment looks not on what is done but to the intention behind it.

 

38、驕傲這個惡魔的邪惡有兩個層面,首先,他引誘出家修士將一切美德歸功於自己,而不是歸功於那成就一切善的上帝;再來,如果惡魔發現修士沒有上當,就會引誘修士看輕那些資歷比較淺的兄弟。如果修士信了惡魔的話,就會深陷在誘惑當中無法察覺,並且抗拒上帝的幫助。如果一個修士瞧不起其他兄弟,覺得他們沒有行善的能力,很顯然地,他將自己放在最前面,以為自己擁有過人的權力,然而,這是不可能的,就好像主耶穌曾經告訴我們:「離了我,你們就不能作什麼。」由於我們的軟弱,當我們開始行善的時候,若是沒有上帝的幫助,我們就無法完成任何事。
38. The demon of pride has a twofold wickedness; either he induces the monk to ascribe his virtuous deeds to himself and not to God the bestower of good things and the helper in good behavior, or, unable to persuade him in this, he suggests that he look down on the brothers who are still less advanced than himself. The one who behaves in this way does not realize that he is being induced into denying God’s assistance. For if he looks down on them as those who are unable to perform good deeds he is evidently putting himself forward as someone who acts uprightly on his own power; but this is impossible, as the Lord told us, “Outside of me you can do nothing.” This is because our weakness, when moved to do good things, is unable to bring anything to completion without the bestower of good things.

 

39、一個已經了解人性軟弱的人,必定體驗過神的大能,而體驗過神的大能的人,並不會因為自己的某方面成就,或是自己對某種成就的渴望,就輕視其他人。因為他知道,上帝已經用同樣的方式幫助了他,讓他從情欲與困苦中解脫出來,所以,上帝也會幫助其他人,尤其是那些為了上帝而努力奮鬥的人。儘管上帝有自己的理由,無法立刻將所有人從情欲中解救出來,上帝仍是一個善良又充滿愛心的救苦者,總會在機緣成熟的時候,治療每一位努力奮鬥的人。
39. The one who has come to understand the weakness of human nature has had experience of the divine power, and such a person who because of it has succeeded in some things and is eager to succeed in others never looks down on anyone. For he knows that in the same way God has helped him and freed him from many passions and hardships, so can he help everyone when he wishes, especially those who are striving for his sake. Although for his own reasons he does not deliver all from their passions right away, still as a good and loving physician he heals in his own good time each one of those who are striving.

 

40、驕傲總是靜靜地伴隨著情欲而來,要不就是轉移目標使人無法察覺,要不就是在惡魔狡詐撤退之時悄悄到來。
40. Pride comes along in the quieting of the passions either in the removal of the causes or in the crafty withdrawal of the demons.

 

41、幾乎所有的罪,都是因感官的享樂而起,然後在我們感到憂傷和痛苦的時候,藉著懺悔或順著天意而消除。因為「我們如果常察辨自己,就不至於受審判了。然而若受主審判,乃是受主懲罰管教,免得跟世人一同受定罪。」
41. Nearly every sin is committed for pleasure, and its removal comes about through distress and sorrow whether voluntary or involuntary, through repentance or any predetermined happening brought on by Providence. For, “if we should judge ourselves, we should not be judged. But while we are judged we are chastened by the Lord, lest we be condemned with this world.”

 

42、當誘惑出奇不意地加在你身上時,不要去追究這是誰引起的,而是要去找出這事的道理,這樣你才會知道如何改正。無論這考驗是從何而來,你也一定要完全喝下上帝審判的苦汁。
42. When a temptation comes upon you unexpectedly, do not inquire of the one through whom it comes but seek the reason for it and you will find correction. Whether it comes from one source or the other, you still have to drink fully the gall of God’s judgments.

 

43、只要你還有不良的習慣,就不要拒絕吃苦,免得你被這些行為所踐踏,而落得尊嚴掃地的下場。
43. So long as you have evil habits, do not refuse to undergo hardships, so that you may be humbled by them and vomit out pride.

 

44、有些誘惑會給人帶來快樂,有些則會帶來憂傷,有些則是身體上的痛苦。因為靈魂的治療者,會依照這些根植在靈魂裡的情欲,以各種審判的藥作為處方。
44. Some temptations bring men pleasure, others distress, and still others bodily pain. For according to the cause of the passions rooted in the soul does the Physician of souls apply the medicine of his judgments.

 

45、誘惑的猛烈攻擊,有時後會帶走那些已犯下的罪,或是正在犯的罪,有時候會斷絕那些將來有可能會犯的罪。事實上,誘惑是一種「除罪」的考驗,就如同約伯所受的考驗一樣。
45. The onslaughts of temptations are brought on sometimes to take away sins already committed, or those being committed in the present, or else to cut off those which could be committed. And this is apart from those which come upon one as a trial, as with Job.

 

46、一個明智的人,會對神聖審判這個靈性之藥充滿感激,也會背負起降臨在自身的不幸,因為他們了解,罪才是招引這些不幸最主要的因素。
46. The sensible man who thinks over the medicine of the divine judgments thankfully bears the misfortunes that befall him because of them, realizing that they have no other cause than his own sins.

 

47、確實有某些活動可以阻止情欲的增長,也有一些方法可以削減情欲。例如:禁食、勤勞的工作、以及某些時日的守夜都可以阻止情欲的滋長,而獨居、靜觀、祈禱以及對上帝的渴望都會削減情欲,甚至使之消失。同樣的,這些活動也可以削減瞋恚心,例如:忍辱、忘記別人的冒犯、柔和…等,都可以避免怒氣的增長,而愛、布施、仁慈以及慈悲,都可以使怒氣消失。
47. There are certain things which check the passions in their movement and do not allow them to advance and increase, and there are others which diminish them and make them decrease. For example, fasting, hard labor, and vigils do not allow concupiscence to grow, while solitude, contemplation, prayer, and desire for God decrease it and make it disappear. And similarly is this the case with anger: for example, long-suffering, the forgetting of offenses, and meekness check it and do not allow it to grow, while love, almsgiving, kindness, and benevolence make it diminish.

 

48、如果我們的心靈與上帝同在,就算將無可計量的情欲,加在心靈對神聖的渴望中,一切躁怒的元素,都會被轉化成神聖的愛。因為,不斷受到神性啟發的心靈,因領受神性之光而閃閃發亮,使所有躁怒的元素得到轉化,就如同我所說的,它會反過來將自己轉化成無盡的神聖欲望和源源不絕的愛,徹底地將塵世的事轉化成神聖的事物。
48. For the mind of the one who is continually with God even his concupiscence abounds beyond measure into a divine desire and whose entire element is transformed into divine love. For by an enduring participation in the divine illumination it has become altogether shining bright, and having bound its possible element to itself it, as I said, turned it around to a never-ending divine desire and an unceasing love, completely changing over from earthly things to divine.

 

49、如果一個人遭到某人的傷害,心中不但沒有因此升起嫉妒或嗔恨,也不會懷有敵意,這都還不算是真正達到「愛」的境界。因為,即使是一個沒有愛的人,也有可能藉著戒律的持守,而不以怨報怨,然而,若是要他做到自發的以愛報怨,卻是不可能的。事實上,如果能夠從容地善待恨你的人,就是獨一無二、完美靈性的愛的標誌。
49. The one who does not envy or is not angry, or who does not bear grudges against the one who has offended him, does not yet have love for him. For it can be that even one who does not yet love does not return evil for evil because of the commandment but in no way does he render good for evil spontaneously. Indeed, deliberately to do good to those who hate you is a mark of perfect spiritual love alone.

 

50、一個對人沒有愛的人,並一定就會恨別人,同樣地,一個對人沒有恨的人,也不一定會愛別人;更確切的說,他對別人的態度可能處於中立的狀態。也就是說,既不愛,也不恨。在本文的第九首中,提到了五種引發「愛」的方法。其中,有令人讚嘆的、有中性,也有應受譴責的。
50. The one who does not love someone does not necessarily hate him, nor again does the one who does not hate necessarily love; rather, he can be in a neutral position to him that is, neither loving nor hating. For only the five ways mentioned in the ninth chapter of this century can produce a loving disposition. These are the praiseworthy way, the neutral way, and the blameworthy ones.

 

 

 

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