《愛的四百句箴言》
St. Maximus the confessor著
201 – 300

《400 sayings about love》
by St. Maximus the confessor
201 – 300

 

1. 將一切思想與事物做合理的運用,就會創造節制、愛與知識;相反地,如果將之做不合理的運用,就會導致過度、憎恨與無知。
1. The reasonable use of thoughts and things is productive of moderation, love, and knowledge; the unreasonable use, of excess, hate, and ignorance.

 

2. 「你為我擺設筵席…」這裡的筵席象徵著實際的美德,因為基督早已備齊了這美德,要「幫助我們安然面對那些使我們苦惱的人」(詩篇23:5)。塗抹在心靈上的聖油,就是對萬物的靜觀;上帝的聖杯則是上帝自身的知識;而祂的慈恩,就是祂的道,就是上帝。透過道成肉身,祂每一天都緊追著我們,直到祂影響了那些將要獲救的人為止,就像祂為保羅所做的一樣。這樣一來,家就是天國,是所有聖徒復活的地方;而每一日,都意味著永恆的生命。

2. “You have prepared a table for me, etc.” Table here signifies practical virtue, for this has been prepared by Christ “against those who afflict us.” The oil which anoints the mind is the contemplation of creatures, the cup of God is the knowledge of God itself; his mercy is his Word and God. For through his incarnation he pursues us all days until he gets hold of those who are to be saved, as he did with Paul. The house is the kingdom in which all the saints will be restored. The length of days means eternal life.

 

3. 無論是由欲望、忿怒或理性所引起的惡行,都是由於濫用靈魂的能力。濫用理性的天賦,會導致無知與愚蠢;濫用憤怒及欲望的天賦,就會導致憎恨與放縱的言行。若是我們能夠正確地使用這些天賦,就能造就學識與審慎的態度。這樣一來,上帝所創造、所賦予的任何東西,就沒有一樣是邪惡的了。
3. The vices, whether of the concupiscible, the irascible, or the rational element, come upon us with the misuse of the faculties of the soul. Misuse of the rational faculty is ignorance and folly, of the irascible and concupiscible faculty, hate and intemperance. Their right use is knowledge and prudence. If this is so, nothing created and given existence by God is evil.

 

4. 邪惡的不是食物而是貪吃;邪惡的不是繁衍後代而是通姦;邪惡的不是財產而是貪婪;邪惡的不是名譽而是虛榮。由此而論,萬物之內並沒有任何的邪惡,除非是被我們濫用。在心靈的自然培育中,粗心大意正是濫用的根源。
4. It is not food which is evil but gluttony, not the begetting of children but fornication, not possessions but greed, not reputation but vainglory. And if this is so, there is nothing evil in creatures except misuse, which stems from the mind’s negligence in its natural cultivation.

 

5. 神聖的Dionysius說:「在惡魔之中,真正邪惡的是:非理性的怒氣、無知的貪婪,以及粗心而導致的妄想。然而,身為理性的生物,這種非理性、粗心和輕率,正是由於缺乏理性、覺察、與謹慎的緣故,之所以會缺乏的原因,則是不良的習慣。因此,我們可以說,起初,惡魔也曾擁有過理性、覺察和謹慎。如果這樣的推論正確,那麼,惡魔的邪惡就不是天生的;換句話說,惡魔因為濫用了自己的天賦,才變得邪惡。」
5. The blessed Dionysius says that among the demons this is what evil is: irrational anger, senseless lust, reckless imagination. But among rational beings unreasonableness, recklessness, and rashness are privations of reason, sense, and circumspection. Now privations follow upon habits; so then the demons once had reason, sense, and religious circumspection. If this is correct, then neither the demons are evil by nature; rather they have become evil through the misuse of their natural faculties.

 

6. 有些情欲來自於不知節制,有些來自於憎恨,也有一些,同時來自於二者。
6. Some passions are productive of intemperance, others of hate, and still others of both intemperance and hate.

 

7. 太過與奢華的飲食,就是過度放縱肉體欲望的原因;貪婪與自負導致了我們對鄰人的憎恨。然而,「自私」才是貪婪與自負的母親,是它們真正的源頭。
7. Excessive and sumptuous eating are causes of intemperance; greed and vainglory cause hatred of neighbor. But their mother, self‐love, is the cause of both.

 

8.「自私」是發自肉體的一種強烈而非理性的情感,這種情感會與「愛」和「自制」相對抗。一個人一旦變得自私,就等於是擁有了全部的情欲。
8. Self-love is the passionate and irrational affection for the body, to which is opposed love and self-mastery. The one who has self-love has all the passions.

 

9. 宗徒說:「從來沒有人恨惡自己的肉體的」(以弗所書23:5),「乃是痛打我的身體,驅使它做奴僕」(歌林多前書 9:27)我們只應在最低限度上,使肉體得到衣食等生活必須品的滿足。這樣一來,我們對肉體的愛就能脫離情欲,我們也會將肉體視為神性的事物,好好照顧它,為了它著想,讓它只在基本的需求上得到滿足。
9. “No one,” says the Apostle, “hates his own flesh,” of course, “but mortifies it and makes it his slave,” allowing it no more than “food and clothing” and these only as they are necessary for life. So in this way one loves it without passion and rears it as an associate in divine things and takes care of it only with those things which satisfy its needs.

 

10. 當一個人愛上某人時,很自然地,他會希望為那個人付出。因此,如果一個人愛上帝,很自然地,就會希望為上帝做些什麼,使祂愉悅。然而,如果一個人愛的是自己的肉體,就會渴望滿足肉體的欲望,使它得到慾樂。
10. When a person loves someone, he is naturally eager to be of service. So if one loves God, he is naturally eager to do what is pleasing to him. But if he loves his flesh, he is eager to accomplish what delights it.

 

11. 能取悅上帝的,就是愛、自制、靜觀以及祈禱。能取悅肉體的則是貪吃、不知節制以及那些助長這些惡行的事物。因此,「在肉體裡生活的人總不能使上帝喜歡」(羅馬書8:8)。「屬基督的人是已經把肉體,同各樣的惡情和私欲,都釘上十字架處死了。」(加拉太書5:24)
11. What pleases God is love, temperance, contemplation, and prayer. What pleases the flesh is gluttony, intemperance, and what contributes to them. Therefore, “those who are in the flesh cannot please God. And those who are Christ’s have crucified their flesh with its passions and lusts.”

 

12. 當心靈向著上帝的時候,就會將肉體變成上帝的僕人,在對待肉體時,只會在最低限度上,給予它維持生命的必須品。然而,當心靈向著肉慾時,心靈就會成為情欲的僕人,總是盡力滿足自己的欲望。
12. When the mind inclines toward God, it keeps the body as a servant and allows it nothing more than what is necessary for life. But when it inclines toward the flesh, it becomes a servant of the passions and always makes provision for its lusts.

 

13. 如果你想要戰勝自己的念頭,就要好好照料自己的情欲,那麼你將可以輕易地駕馭它們。因此,想要戰勝姦淫的念頭,就要齋戒、守夜、辛勤工作、獨處。想要戰勝忿怒與受傷的感覺,就要看輕名聲的好壞,看輕物質界。想要戰勝怨恨,就請為傷害你的人禱告。這樣,你就可以擺脫所有的怨恨了。
13. If you want to prevail over your thoughts, take care of your passions and you will easily drive them from your mind. Thus for fornication, fast, keep vigil, work hard, keep to yourself. For anger and hurt, disdain reputation and dishonor and material things. For grudges, pray for the one who has hurt you and you will be rid of them.

 

14. 不要將自己看作是軟弱的,而是要為了愛的誡命而伸出雙手。因為若是將自己看作是軟弱的,就會陷入自以為是的陷井之中;反之,你將會朝著更高層次的謙虛而努力,來設法達成愛的誡命。
14. Do not compare yourself to weaker men, but rather reach out to the commandment of love. For by comparing yourself to these you fall into the pit of conceit; in reaching out for the latter you advance to the heights of humility.

 

15. 如果你真的遵守誡命,愛我們的鄰人,那你又為什麼要對鄰人懷抱著怨恨呢?這難道不是因為你喜歡那些無常的事物更甚於愛,並且緊抓著這些事物不放,才會導致你對兄弟發動戰爭嗎?
15. If you are really observing the commandment of love of neighbor, for what reason do you bear him the bitterness of resentment? Is it not clearly because in preferring transient things to love and in holding on to them you are making war on your brother?

 

16. 與其說,人是出於需要,才將錢財變得有價值,倒不如說,人之所以看中錢財,是因為它可以帶來許多感官上的快樂。
16. Not so much out of necessity has gold become enviable by men as that with it most of them can provide for their pleasures.

 

17. 貪財的原因有三個:一是為了謀求感官的快樂,二是出於虛榮,三是由於缺乏信仰。對信仰的缺乏,遠比另外兩個原因還要來得重要。
17. There are three reasons for the love of money: pleasure-seeking, vainglory, and lack of faith. And more serious than the other two is lack of faith.

 

18. 享樂主義者熱愛金錢,因為有了錢,就可以過著奢華的生活;虛榮的人之所以愛錢,是因為有了錢之後,就可以得到更多的讚美;而缺乏信仰的人則是因為,當他對飢餓、年老、疾病或者是離鄉背景感到害怕時,他可以把錢好好貯儲起來,他將一切的希望都寄託在金錢之上,而非上帝,殊不知上帝才是萬物的創造者、萬物的照料者,哪怕是最不重要、最微小的生命,祂都予與供應。
18. The hedonist loves money because with it he lives in luxury; the vain person because with it he can be praised; the person who lacks faith because he can hide it and keep it while in fear of hunger, or old age, or illness, or exile. He lays his hope on it rather than on God the maker and provider of the whole creation, even of the last and least of living things.

 

19. 有四種人會為了取得金錢而努力。上文中已經談到了其中三種,而第四種則是能夠支配金錢的人。很顯然的,只有第四種人是為了正當的理由而謀取金錢:因此,他將永遠不會因為救濟別人的需求而匱乏。
19. There are four kinds of people who acquire money, the three just mentioned and the financial administrator. Obviously only he acquires it for the right reason: so that he might never run short in relieving each one’s need.

 

20.一切情欲的思想,不是會刺激欲望、擾動性情,就是會使靈魂中理性的元素變得昏暗,讓靈魂發生變化。心靈在靈性的靜觀中和祈禱中會受到妨礙。因此,修道士應該更嚴肅的注意自己的思想,特別是獨修的人,不但要知道這些思想的原因,也要將之克除。舉個例來說,一個修道士應該要知道,有關女人的情欲記憶會喚醒靈魂中欲望的元素,而這些記憶,又是來自於吃喝無度,或者與同樣的女人過度頻繁地來往。因此,飢餓、口渴、守夜以及獨居,可以克除這些因素。進一步地,這些已經傷害了我們的記憶,還會激起一個人的脾氣。這種脾氣的起因,正是由於追尋感官的快樂、自大以及對物質事物的執著。這些受到刺激的人是悲哀的,因為他們將會失去它們,不然就是無法得到它們。
20. All passionate thoughts either excite the concupiscible, disturb the irascible, or darken the rational element of the soul. From this it comes about that the mind is hampered in its spiritual contemplation and in the flight of prayer. And because of this the monk, and especially the solitary, should give serious heed to his thoughts and both know and eliminate their causes. Thus, for instance, he should know that passionate memories of women arouse the concupiscible element of the soul and are caused by incontinence in eating and drinking, as well as by frequent and unreasonable association with these same women. Hunger, thirst, vigils, and solitude eliminate them. Again, passionate memories of those who have hurt us stir up the temper; their causes are pleasure-seeking, vainglory, and attachment to material things, for the aroused person is saddened because he has either lost these things or not attained them. Disdain and contempt of these things for the love of God eliminates them.

 

21. 上帝清楚地認識自己,也認識祂所創造的事物,而聖天使卻無法完全像上帝一樣,徹底地認識上帝,認識上帝所創造的事物。
21. God knows himself and the things created by him. The holy angels also know God and they know, too, the things created by him. But the holy angels do not know God and the things created by him as God knows himself and the things created by him.

 

22. 上帝透過自己神聖的本質,並且在自己的本質內創造了萬物。藉由這神聖的本質,祂認識自己,也認識一切從祂的智慧中創造出來的事物。然而,聖天使乃是藉著參與上帝才得以認識上帝,儘管他已經超越了「參與」這層關係,然而,藉由對萬物的靜觀,聖天使才得以認識上帝所創造的事物。
22. God knows himself of his own sacred essence, and the things created by him from his wisdom, through which and in which he made all things. The holy angels, however, know God by participation, though he is beyond participation, and they know things created by him by a perception of what is contemplated in them.

 

23. 受造物確實是在心靈之外,然而,心靈卻在心靈之內獲得對萬物的靜觀。這與無窮、無邊、永恆的上帝是不同的。上帝自由地賜予祂的創造物存在、福祉、以及永恆的存在。
23. Created things are indeed outside the mind, but it receives their contemplation inside it. This is not so with the eternal, infinite, and immense God, who freely bestows being, well-being, and eternal being on his creatures.

 

24. 一個天生擁有理智與領悟力的人,藉著自己真實的存在和追求福祉的才能(即善行與智慧),還有「自由」這個永恆的天賦,參與了神聖的上帝,並且認識了上帝。就像前文曾經提到的,藉著受造物的智慧,認識了上帝所創造的一切事物,這智慧以簡單的形式存在心智之中,沒有屬於自己的實質。
24. A nature endowed with reason and understanding participates in the holy God by its very being, by its aptitude for well-being (that is, for goodness and wisdom), and by the free gift of eternal being. In this way it knows God; and things created by him, as was said, it knows by a perception of the ordered wisdom to be observed in creation. This wisdom exists in the mind as simple and without substance of its own.

 

25. 在上帝創造了帶有理智與智力的天性時,就賦予了天性四種神聖的屬性:即「存在」、「永恆」、「美德」與「智慧」。前兩項是上帝賦予天性的本質,後兩項是上帝賜予天性的意志力。也就是說,上帝雖然是因為自己的本質而成為上帝的樣子,但是為了讓受造物可以藉著參與,而變得像祂一樣,祂賜予天性的本質「存在」和「永恆」這兩個特質,而使意志擁有「美德」與「智慧」這兩個特質。因此,祂告訴人們,要成為祂的肖像,要像祂一樣:藉由我們的「存在」,成為祂存在的肖像;藉由我們「永恆」,成為他永恆的肖像(雖然這並不是沒有起點,但卻是沒有終點);藉由我們的「美德」,變成像祂一樣的美德;藉由我們的「智慧」,變成像祂一樣的智慧。藉著天性,依靠著恩典,每一個理性的天性確確實實是依上帝的形象而造的,但也只有美善與智慧之人才是上帝的肖像。
25. In bringing into existence a rational and intelligent nature, God in his supreme goodness has communicated to it four of the divine attributes by which he maintains, guards, and preserves creatures: being, eternal being, goodness, and wisdom. The first two of these he grants to the essence, the second two to its faculty of will; that is, to the essence he gives being and eternal being, and to the volitive faculty he gives goodness and wisdom in order that what he is by essence the creature might become by participation. For this reason he is said to be made “to the image and likeness of God”: to the image of his being by our being, to the image of his eternal being by our eternal being (even though not without a beginning, it is yet without end); to the likeness of his goodness by our goodness, to the image of his wisdom by our wisdom. The first is by nature, the second by grace. Every rational nature indeed is made to the image of God; but only those who are good and wise are made to his likeness.

 

26. 所有理智與智力的本性,可以被區分成兩類:即「天使的」天性以及「人類的」天性。而天使的天性又可以進一步約略地分成兩類:即「神聖的」與「被詛咒的」;也就是說,可以分成「擁有神聖力量的天使」,以及「污穢的惡魔」。所有人類的天性也可以被分為兩類,即有信仰的與無信仰的。
26. All rational and intelligent nature is divided into two, namely, angelic and human nature. And all angelic nature is again divided into two general sides or groupings, holy or accursed, that is, into holy powers and impure demons. All human nature is divided as well into only two general sides, religious and irreligious.

 

27. 上帝是絕對的存在、絕對的善、絕對的智慧(更確切的說,上帝乃是超越這些事物的),無論如何,與此相反的特質,在上帝身上都不存在。然而對受造物而言,卻擁有與此相反的特質。藉由參與上帝以及上帝的恩典,受造物才能擁有存在、理性及智力,藉著理性與智力,受造物才有美善和智慧的才能。存在與不存在相對,美善與智慧與惡行和無知相對。對受造物而言,永遠的存在或是不存在,乃是依據造物主的大能而定的。至於要不要參與上帝的美善和智慧,則是依據每一個理性存在者的意志而決定的。
27. God as absolute existence, goodness, and wisdom (or rather, to speak more properly, as transcending all these things) has no contrary quality whatever. But creatures, because they all have existence, and rational and intelligent ones their aptitude for goodness and wisdom by participation and grace, do have contrary qualities. To existence is opposed nonexistence, to the aptitude for goodness and wisdom is opposed vice and ignorance. For them to exist forever or not to exist is in the power of their maker. To share in his goodness and wisdom or not to share depends on the will of rational beings.

 

28. 希臘哲學家堅稱:「人類的本質永遠與上帝共存,人們只是從上帝那裡接受到屬於個人的特質。本質是沒有相對的,在特質中,才找得到相對。」然而,我們堅定地認為,上帝神性的本體是獨一無二、沒有相對的,祂是永恆的、無限的,因為祂賜予其他的實體永恆的特性;我們主張,不存在就是人類本質的對立面,而人類的永恆存在或不存在,乃是源於那位真正的存在者的大能;「而祂的這份禮物,是不會改訂的。」因此,就如同我們所說的,自從它從不存在裡被上帝創造出來後,這份禮物始終是,也將會是由上帝全能的大能所支持的,儘管它沒有所謂的不存在來與之相對。無論存在或不存在,都是依據上帝的意志而決定的。
28. When the Greek philosophers affirm that the substance of beings coexisted eternally with God and that they received only their individual qualities from him, they say that there is nothing contrary to substance but that opposition is found only in the qualities. We maintain, however, that the divine substance alone has no contrary because it is eternal and infinite and bestows eternity on the other substances; furthermore that nonbeing is the contrary of the substance of beings and that their eternal being or nonbeing lies in the power of the one who properly is being, “and his gifts are not subject to revision.” And therefore it both always is and will be sustained by his all-powerful might even though it has nonbeing as its opposite, as was said, since it was brought into being from nonbeing by God and whether it has being or nonbeing depends on his will.

 

29. 邪惡是美德的匱乏,是缺乏美德的知識,而「無」是「有」的匱乏。嚴格地說,這裡所說的「有」,並不是一般人所認為的存在,而是藉由參與上帝而有真正的存在。美德的匱乏,是基於受造物的意志;而「有」則是依據造物主的意志,祂以自己的美德和意志,使一切由祂所創的事物得以存在,並能從祂那裡領受到好處。
29. Just as evil is the privation of good and ignorance that of knowledge, so is nonbeing the privation of being—but not of being properly so called, for it has no contrary—but of true being by participation. Privations of the former depend on the will of creatures; privation of the latter depends on the will of the Creator, who out of goodness ever wills his creatures to exist and to receive benefits from him.

 

30. 所有的受造物,有些是理性而有智慧,並且容許對立面(如善與惡,學識與無知)的存在。有些則是由不同的對立物(如地、水、火、風)所組成的。也有一些受造物是完全沒有形體或物質的,儘管其中有一部分是與形體互相結合在一起。而其它的受造物,則是完全由物質與形式所組成的。
30. Of all creatures, some are rational and intelligent and admit of opposites such as virtue and vice, knowledge and ignorance. Others are various bodies composed of opposites such as earth, air, fire, and water. And there are some completely without body or matter, though some of these are united to bodies, and others have their makeup only of matter and form.

 

31. 所有的肉體天生都是沒有辦法活動的。無論是理性的、非理性的,或是感覺遲鈍的,都要藉由靈魂才得以活動。
31. All bodies are by nature without movement. They are moved by a soul, whether rational, irrational, or insensitive.

 

32. 靈魂擁有獲取養份與成長的力量,擁有想像與欲望的力量,擁有理性與理解的力量。植物只得到了到第一種力量,非理性的動物則同時獲得了到第二種力量,而人類則享有第三種以及前兩種力量。前兩種力量是會死亡的,第三種力量則是不滅的,是永恆的。
32. The soul’s powers are for nourishment and growth, for imagination and appetite, for reason and understanding. Plants share only in the first powers, irrational animals share in the second as well, and men in the third in addition to the first two. Moreover, the first two powers prove to be perishable, but the third is imperishable and immortal.

 

33. 當神聖的天使試著給人啟發時,通常會運用人的天性、美善道德或知識來與之溝通。因此,一個擁有道德的人,或者說,一個仿效神性之善的人,往往能夠利己利人,甚至使那些不太屬靈的人獲益,因為他們使人回歸上帝的肖像。因此,無論是某件與上帝相關的高尚事物(聖經曾言:「主,祢是至高無上的,直到永遠」),或是如肉體這麼深刻的事情;或者,更確切的說,與「超越形體的存有」和「上帝的大能」相關的事情,或是與「審判」相關的事情,都能成為天使運用來啟發人類的知識。
33. The holy angels, in communicating their illumination with one another, also communicate to human nature either their virtue or the knowledge which they have. Thus with their virtue, as an imitation of the divine goodness, they benefit themselves, each other, and those beneath them by making them Godlike. With their knowledge, as either something loftier about God (“You, Lord, are forever most high,” says Scripture), or deeper about bodies, or more accurate about incorporeal beings, or clearer about Providence, or more manifest about judgment.

 

34. 「不潔的心靈」的含意有四:第一個含意是「擁有錯誤的知識」;再者是「見識短淺」,這裡我是針對人類說的,因為天使是無所不知的;第三是「擁有情欲」;第四是「贊同罪惡的行為」。
34. Impurity of mind means first to have false knowledge; next to be ignorant of any of the universals—I speak of the human mind, since an angel is not ignorant of particular things; thirdly in having passionate thoughts; and fourthly in consenting to sin.

 

35.「不潔的靈魂」意味著「不依據自己的天性來實踐」,這樣的靈魂總是使心靈產生情欲。如果一個人能夠遵照自己的本性來實踐,當憤怒、猜疑…等情感開始運作時,心靈就算在物質和妄念的襲擊下,還是能夠超脫情欲。
35. Impurity of soul means not acting according to nature, for from this are begotten passionate thoughts in the mind. Now it acts in accord with nature when its sensitive drives, that is, anger and concupiscence, remain free of passion under the assault of material things and the representations they bring.

 

36.身體的不潔就是一種真正的罪。
36. Impurity of body is a sin in deed.

 

37. 一個不受世間事物影響的人,往往喜愛獨處。一個心中不貪愛俗世的人,往往愛著全人類。一個不會因為挑剔或猜疑對任何人動怒的人,往往擁有與上帝和神聖事物相關的知識。
37. The one who is not affected by the things of the world loves solitude ; the one who does not love anything human loves all men; and the one who takes no offense at anyone, either because of faults or suspicious thoughts, possesses the knowledge of God and of divine realities.

 

38. 「不受到任何事物左右」是一件了不起的事,然而,如果能做到「完全超脫於這些事物在心中留下的印象」又更了不起。
38. It is a great thing not to be affected by things; but it is far better to remain detached from their representations.

 

39.「愛」與「自律」是要讓我們的心靈,對於一切事物和它們在心中留下的印象,不會產生任何執著。
39. Love and self-mastery keep the mind detached from things and from their representations.

 

40. 一個愛上帝的人,不會投入任何反對行動,只會致力於對抗心中的情欲。因此,一個愛上帝的人,不會與女人或任何冒犯他們的人敵對,也不會與這些人在心中留下的印象敵對,而只會想要對抗這些印象在心中產生的情欲。
40. The mind of the one who loves God does not engage in battle against things nor against their representations, but against the passions joined to these representations. Thus it does not war against the woman nor against the one who offends him, nor against their images, but against the passions that are joined to these images.

 

41. 僧侶對魔鬼發動的戰鬥,就是為了要將心中的情欲抽離。否則他們將永遠無法以完全不帶情欲的心境來看事情。
41. The whole war of the monk against the demons is to separate the passions from the representations. Otherwise he will not be able to look on things without passion.

 

42. 「事物」、「雜念」和「情欲」,是非常不同的東西。舉例來說,「事物」可能是某一件事、某個男人、某個女人、某一塊金子…等。又比如說,「雜念」可能是與這些事物相關的某一個念頭、某一個淡淡的回憶…等。然而,「情欲」是一種非理性的情感,例如,因這些事物而產生的恨意,或者某種失去理智的情感。因此,僧侶每日戰鬥不休的對象,就是「情欲」。
42. Thing, representation, and passion are all different realities. A thing is, for instance, a man, a woman, gold, and so forth. A representation is, for instance, a simple recollection of any of these things. Passion, however, is an irrational affection or senseless hate for any of these things. Therefore the monk’s battle is directed against passion.

 

43. 帶有情欲的思想,是一種摻雜著情欲和雜念的思想。讓我們將心中的情欲抽離吧!這樣心中就會剩下單純的想法。如果我們願意的話,我們可以藉著「自律」與「靈性之愛」讓情欲遠離我們的心靈。
43. A passionate representation is a thought made up of passion and representation. Let us separate the passion from the representation, and the simple thought will remain. We can, if we wish, make this separation through spiritual love and self-mastery.

 

44. 「美善道德」讓心靈與情欲分離,「靈性靜觀」讓心靈抽離日常生活中的雜念,「純粹祈禱」讓心靈與上帝面對面。
44. The virtues separate the mind from the passions; spiritual contemplations separate it from simple representations; then pure prayer sets it before God himself.

 

45. 「美善的道德」與「受造物的知識」分不開,「知識」與「學習知識的人」分不開,「學習知識的人」又與那種「在懵懂無知的狀態下,體悟到神性知識的人」分不開。
45. The virtues are related to the knowledge of creatures, knowledge to the knower, the knower to the one who is known in ignorance and whose knowing transcends knowledge.

 

46. 上帝是超越完美的,祂不會因為自己的需要而創造萬物,但卻會為了萬物參與在祂之內的樂趣而創造萬物,或者當祂看到萬物快樂,並且無止盡地滿足於永不匱乏的上帝時,祂才會以祂的工作為樂。
46. God who is beyond fullness did not bring creatures into being out of any need of his, but that he might enjoy their proportionate participation in him and that he might delight in his works seeing them delighted and ever insatiably satisfied with the one who is inexhaustible.

 

47. 世上許多人在靈性上十分貧乏,卻不走正確的道路。許多富有卻沒有孩子的人,每天悲嘆著自己的遭遇。許多個性溫柔謙讓的人,心中卻常常升起不潔的情欲。許多貪婪的人,不但掠奪別人的東西,還以違反道義的方式使自己獲利。許多心中充滿慈愛的人,卻只注重肉體上的安頓與享受。許多潔淨自心的人,卻是為了自己的面子與虛榮心。許多信仰和平主義的人,卻讓自己的靈魂服從於肉體的欲望。還有許多因為任性而遭受迫害的人,和許多因犯罪而蒙羞的人…。然而,只有蒙上帝祝福的人,才真正為了上帝而忍受辛勞與苦痛,追隨上帝的典範。為什麼呢?「因為天國是他們的」(馬太福音5:3)、「他們將會面見上帝」(馬太福音5:8)…。我們要知道,並不是因為忍受辛勞與苦痛,所以獲得上帝的祝福,而是,「為了上帝」而忍受辛勞與苦痛,並且「真正追隨上帝的典範」,所以獲得上帝的祝福(儘管兩者都忍受了辛勞與苦痛,然而意義有所不同)。
47. The world has many poor in spirit, but not in the right way; and many who mourn, but over money matters and loss of children; and many who are meek, but in the face of impure passions; and many who hunger and thirst, but to rob another’s goods and to profit unjustly. And there are many who are merciful, but to the body and to its comforts ; and clean of heart, but out of vanity; and peacemakers, but who subject the soul to the flesh; and many who suffer persecution, but because they are disorderly; many who are reproached, but for shameful sins. Instead, only those are blessed who do and suffer these things for Christ and following his example. For what reason? “Because theirs is the kingdom of heaven,” and “they shall see God,” and so forth. So that it is not because they do and suffer these things that they are blessed (since those just mentioned do the same), but because they do and suffer them for Christ and following his example.

 

48. 關於我們所做的一切,上帝往往將焦點放在我們最初的動機,正如同上文中常常提及的,上帝要知道我們是為了祂而做,或者有其它動機。因此,當我們想做某件「善」事的時候,我們不該用人的眼光來評價,而要以上帝的眼光來看。在做每件事的當下,應該要心存上帝,否則我們可能會白忙一場,付出很多,卻得不到任何正面的回報。
48. In everything that we do God looks at the intention, as has frequently been said, whether we do it for him or for any other motive. Therefore when we wish to do something good, let us not have human applause in view but rather God, so that always looking to him we might do everything on his account; otherwise we shall undergo the labor and still lose the reward.

 

49. 在祈禱的當下,應該要拋開心中每一個世俗的想法,還要去除每一個關於受造物的念頭,以免更好的想法和念頭無法顯現在心中。
49. In time of prayer chase from your mind the simple representations of human matters and the ideas of every creature, lest in creating images of lesser things you be deprived of the one who is incomparably better than them all.

 

50. 如果我們真誠地愛著上帝,藉著這個愛,就能去除心中的情欲。如果我們的心中充滿對上帝的愛,這代表了我們愛「上帝」勝過愛「世間」,我們愛「靈魂」勝過於愛「肉體」。這也代表了我們並不看中世間的事物,而只想一心一意將自己奉獻於自律、愛、祈禱、聖詩吟唱…等,永不間斷。
50. If we sincerely love God we cast out the passions by this very love. Love for him means to prefer him to the world and the soul to the body. It means to despise worldly things and to devote oneself continually to him through self-mastery, love, prayer, psalmody, and so forth.

 

51.如果我們能夠長期的將自己完全奉獻給上帝,並且留心靈魂中敏感的部份,我們就不會再莽撞地陷入妄念的攻擊之中。進一步,如果我們能用心思考這些念頭的起因,並且將這些原因根除,那麼我們洞察力就會變得越來越敏銳,並且在我們心中實踐「我親眼看到那窺伺我者遭報,我親耳聽見那起來攻擊我,的惡人受罰。」(詩篇 92:11)這句話。
51. If we devote ourselves to God for a considerable period and give heed to the sensitive part of the soul, we no longer run headlong into the assaults of thoughts. Rather, in very carefully considering their causes and in eradicating them we become more perceptive and have the words fulfilled in us, “My eye also has looked down on my enemy, and my ear shall hear the malignant who rise up against me.”

 

52. 如果你發現自己的心,處在這世界的表象裡,卻可以虔誠而公正的引導自己,那麼你就可以知道,自己的肉體依然是純淨無瑕的。當你發現自己的心,在思想上已經將自己托付給罪惡,而且不肯加以克制,那麼,你就可以知道,不久之後,你的肉體就會與這些罪惡畫上等號。
52. When you see that your mind is conducting itself devoutly and justly in representations of the world, know then that your body, too, remains pure and sinless. But when you see that your mind is giving itself over to sins in thought and you do not resist, know that your body, too, will not be long in falling in with those sins.

 

53. 身體把物質的事物當成它的世界,而心靈則把形象當成它的世界;身體會與女人的身體犯下姦淫的罪,而心靈則會透過幻想,和女人身體的圖像犯下姦淫的罪。因為在心靈的世界裡,它看見自己身體的形象和女人的形象結合在一起;它也會以同樣的方法,透過身體的形象,來抵擋那裡過去曾經攻擊過我們的人的形象;以及其它種種相類似的罪。在物質的世界裡,身體可以透過行動來犯罪,心靈則會在形象的世界裡犯罪。
53. Just as the body has material things for its world, so does the mind have representations for its world, and just as the body commits fornication with a woman’s body, so does the mind commit fornication with the representation of a woman’s body through its own body’s fantasies. For in its mind it sees the shape of its own body joined with that of a woman. In the same way the mind wards off the picture of the one who has offended us through the shape of its own body. And similarly for other sins. For what the body does through action in the world of material reality, the mind also does in the world of representations.

 

54. 沒有理由為了「聖父並不會審判任何人,而是把所有的審判交給了聖子」這個概念而不安、驚訝或感到震驚;聖子大聲的叫喊:「你們別論斷人了,免得你們被論斷。因為你們怎樣論斷人,也必怎樣被論斷;」(馬太福音 7:1-2)宗徒也說:「定時未到以前,什麼都不要論斷了;只等主來」(歌林多前書 4:5)又說:「在什麼事上論斷人,就在什麼事上定你自己的罪。」(羅馬書 2:1)但是,當人們忘了哀悼自己的罪時,人們就奪去了聖子的審判,儘管自己有罪,自己然仍彼此互相的審判與論斷。為此,「天堂感到驚訝」,而塵世被擾亂,而人們卻因為自己的遲鈍,而不知羞恥。
54. There is no reason to be disturbed, shocked, or astonished by the idea that God the Father judges no one but has given all judgment to the Son. The Son cries out, “Do not judge lest you be judged. Do not condemn lest you be condemned.” And the Apostle likewise, “Judge not before the time until the Lord comes,” and, “With the judgment that you judge another you condemn yourself.” But in neglecting to lament their own sins, men take judgment away from the Son and they themselves, though sinful, judge and condemn each other. And “at this heaven is astonished,” earth is disturbed, but they in their insensitivity are not ashamed.

 

55. 如果一個人喜好管他人的罪,或是以猜疑的方式來論斷他的兄弟,那麼他不但沒有為懺悔打基礎,也沒有試著去察覺自己擁有的罪(事實上,這些罪遠比沉重的鉛錘還要重多了)。他也不知道一個熱愛虛榮與謊言的人,為何會變得心情沉重。因此,他就好像一個走進黑暗中的蠢蛋,不在意自己的罪,卻想像著他人的罪,無論他人的罪是否真的存在,或者只是自己的猜測罷了。
55. The one who meddles in the sins of others or even judges his brother on a suspicion has not yet laid the foundation of repentance nor sought to know his own sins (which are truly heavier than an enormous weight of lead). Neither does he know how it comes about that the man who loves vanities and seeks after lies becomes heavy-hearted. Thus as a foolish person going about in the dark he takes no mind of his own sins and imagines those of others whether they actually exist or he only suspects them.

 

56. 就像我們經常談到的,「自私」是所有情欲思想的根源。它會產生三種主要欲望,這些欲望是與肉體有關的:暴食、貪心與虛榮。暴食,導致了姦淫的思想;貪心導致了貪婪的欲望;虛榮則帶來了自大。其它的情欲,也會接踵而至,例如:忿怒、悲傷、怨恨、懶惰、忌妒、背地裡的攻擊…等。儘管我們的心,原本該是比火焰還要明亮,比火焰還要生生不息。但這些情欲,將我們的心靈與物質的事物緊緊綁在一起,並使心靈墮落到塵世的境界,就好像一顆重重的石頭壓在上面一樣。
56. Self-love, as has frequently been said, is the cause of all passionate thoughts. From it are begotten the three capital thoughts of concupiscence : gluttony, greed, and vanity. From gluttony the thought of fornication arises; from greed, that of covetousness; and from vanity, that of arrogance. All the rest follow one or the other of these three: the thoughts of anger, grief, resentment, sloth, envy, back-biting, and the rest. These passions, then, bind the mind to material things and keep it down on the earth, weighing on it like a very heavy stone, though by nature it should be lighter and livelier than fire.

 

57. 所有情欲的開頭都是自私,發展到最後,就會變成自滿。自私是一種對肉體的不合理的愛,如果一個人可以克服它,就能夠克服一切由它引起的情欲。
57. The beginning of all passions is love of self, and the end is pride. Self-love is irrational love of the body, and if one eliminates this he eliminates along with it all the passions stemming from it.

 

58. 就好像父母對他們身體所繁衍出來的後代,都會擁有強烈的感情一樣,心靈也會留戀於它所推論出來的結果。這樣的心靈,就好像在情感上依戀著孩子的父母,儘管這些孩子們有多麼的惡劣,在他們眼裡總是所有人中最清白、最漂亮的,這是一個愚蠢的心靈。無論這些推論的結果有多麼的卑鄙,在心靈的眼中,也都是最合情合理的。然而,這卻不適用於一個有智慧的人與他所推論得出的結果。進一步說,當他所推論出的結果,看起來就像真的,而且正確無誤的時候,他就會懷疑自己的推論,進而利用其他智者的論點來審視自己的推論(為了避徒勞無功),藉由他人的審視,他才能夠獲得保證。
58. Just as parents have affection for the offspring of their bodies, so also is the mind naturally attached to its own reasonings. And just as to their parents who are emotionally attached the children appear as the fairest and handsomest of all even though in every way they might be the most hideous of all, so it is with the foolish mind. Its reasonings, even though they might be the most depraved of all, still appear in its view as the most sensible of all. However, this is not the case with the wise man and his reasonings. Rather, when it seems convincing that they are true and correct, then especially does he distrust his own judgment but makes use of other wise men as judges of his own reasonings (so as not to run or have run in vain), and from them he receives assurance.

 

59. 當你克服了那些不太光彩的情欲,諸如:暴食、姦淫、忿怒、貪婪…等,突然之間,就會與自己的虛榮相遇。而當你又克服了虛榮之後,驕傲又會立刻跟著出現。
59. When you overcome any of the dishonorable passions, such as gluttony, fornication, anger, or covetousness, suddenly the thought of vanity lights upon you. But when you overcome this, that of pride follows in short order.

 

60. 那些無恥的情欲,會掌控我們的靈魂,使我們停止思考任何有關虛榮心的事,一旦這種反思的能力消失之後,它們在靈魂裡,就沒有任何的拘束了。
60. All the dishonorable passions that hold sway over the soul drive out the thought of vanity from it, and when all these have given way, they set it loose on the soul.

 

61. 虛榮,無論是它被剔除或存在,都會帶來驕傲。當它被剔除時,就會產生狂妄。當它存在之時,就會產生自大。
61. Vanity, whether it is eliminated or whether it remains, begets pride. When eliminated it produces conceit, when remaining it produces pretentiousness.

 

62. 謹言慎行可以去除虛榮;將我們正確的行為歸於上帝可以去除驕傲。
62. Discreet practice eliminates vainglory; ascribing our right actions to God removes pride.

 

63. 一個人若被授予上帝知識的榮譽,並從中得到豐富的喜樂,就會鄙視所有從貪欲獲得的喜樂。
63. A person who has been honored with the knowledge of God and is abundantly enjoying the pleasure it provides disdains all the pleasures begotten from lust.

 

64. 一個貪求塵世的人就會貪求食物,貪求供應情欲的事物,貪求人們的讚賞,貪求金錢,以及任何與塵世有關的事物。除非心靈能夠發現某個更好的東西,而這個東西又可以轉換心靈的欲望,否則它是無法完全地信服,而去輕視它所貪求的東西的。顯然地,這個更好的東西,就是上帝的知識,以及神聖的事物。
64. The one who lusts after earthly things lusts after food, or what serves the lower passions, or human applause, or money, or something else associated with them. And unless the mind finds something better than these to which it can transfer its desire, it will not be completely persuaded to disdain them. And better than these by far is the knowledge of God and of divine things.

 

65. 那些可以輕視感官享樂的人之所以能夠這麼做,要不就是出於敬畏,要不就是出於盼望,要不就是出於上帝的知識和上帝的愛。
65. Those who disdain pleasures do so either out of fear or hope or knowledge and love of God.

 

66.完全脫離情欲的、關於神性事物的知識,無法說服我們的心靈徹底看輕物質界的事物,這些知識只不過是一種對事物的觀感和想法。因此,人們可以發現許多有學識的人,並不會像在泥巴中的豬一樣,在肉體的情欲中打滾。這些人透過自己的努力,達到一定程度的淨化,獲得了知識,但卻漸漸變得愈來愈輕率,他們就像撒羅(Saul)一樣,撒羅受神膏立為王之後,做了些不配的事,而受到嚴厲的天譴,使他撤去了王位。
66. Knowledge of divine things without passion does not persuade the mind to disdain material things completely, but rather resembles the mere thought of a thing of sense. Thus one finds many men with considerable knowledge who yet wallow in the passions of the flesh like pigs in mud. For in reaching through their diligence a certain degree of purification and in acquiring knowledge but in later growing careless they can be compared to Saul, who after being given the kingship conducted himself unworthily and was dismissed from it with terrible wrath.

 

67. 屬於人世的純真思想,並不會使人的心靈蔑視神聖的事物,而屬於神聖事物的純真知識,也無法說服人們的心靈,完全的看輕所處的塵世,是故真理蟄伏於陰影與形象之中。因此,擁有聖愛這種神聖的欲望是不可缺的,它可以使得心靈與靈性真實的結合,說服心靈,使它熱愛精神更甚於物質,使它熱愛智力與神聖的事物更甚於感官的事物。
67. Just as the simple thought of human realities does not oblige the mind to disdain the divine, so neither does the simple knowledge of divine things persuade it fully to disdain human things, for the reason that the truth exists now in shadows and figures. Hence there is a need for the blessed passion of holy love, which binds the mind to spiritual realities and persuades it to prefer the immaterial to the material and intelligible and divine things to those of sense.

 

68. 一個已經去除情欲,並產生單純思想的人,也是無法使這些思想完全轉變成神聖的。然而,他卻可以不受人類事物的誘惑,也不受到神聖事物的吸引。對於那些在現實的生活中,尚未被賜予上帝的知識的人,以及那些出於敬畏,或是對天堂的盼望而除去情欲的人來說,就是這樣的情形。
68. The one who has eliminated the passions and produced simple thoughts has still not yet completely turned them into divine things but can be drawn neither to human nor to divine things. This is the case of those in the active life who have not yet been given knowledge and who abstain from the passions out of fear or out of hope of the kingdom.

 

69. 「我們是憑著信仰而行,而不是憑著眼見。」(歌林多後書 5:7)我們擁有知識只是反射出來的東西,只是一團謎。因此,我們必須專注於這些問題,以至於在長久的實踐和討論中,我們可以煅造出靜觀的習慣。
69. “We walk by faith, not by sight,” and have knowledge in mirrors and riddles. Because of this we need to be very occupied with these so that through lengthy exercise and discussion we might forge a tenacious habit of contemplation.

 

70. 如果只是在某種程度上,去除了引起情欲的誘因,如果想要致力於靈性的靜觀,但卻無法持之以恆,這樣就很有可能會輕易地重返身體的情欲。在這種情形下,我們可能會狂妄的想要獲得單純的知識。結果,我們就會漸漸的模糊靜觀的知識,並使我們的心靈,完全的轉向物質的事物。
70. If after eliminating only to some extent the causes of the passions we devote ourselves to spiritual contemplations but are not constantly occupied with them, we can while doing this easily revert once more to the body’s passions. In this event we can expect to gather no other fruit except simple knowledge with conceit. The result of this is the gradual obscuring of this knowledge and the complete turning of the mind to material things.

 

71. 那些受譴責的情欲之愛,以物質的事物,佔據了心靈。而那些令人欽佩的情欲之愛,使心靈與神聖的事物結合。因為一般來說,心在那裡奉獻了時間,心也就跟著擴展到那裡,心擴展到那裡時,也會跟著轉化自己的欲望與愛。無論那是它本身所擁有的神聖事物,或是屬於肉體與情欲的事物,都是如此。
71. The blameworthy passion of love engrosses the mind in material things. The praiseworthy passion of love binds it even to divine things. For generally where the mind devotes its time it also expands, and where it expands it also turns its desire and love, whether this be in divine and intelligible things which are its own or in the things of the flesh and the passions.

 

72. 上帝創造了無形和有形的世界,因此,很自然地,他也創造了靈魂和肉體。我們眼前的有形的世界,是如此的美麗,那麼,無形的世界將又是如何的呢?如果無形的世界比有形的世界更好,那麼,它們的創造者又比會它們好多少倍呢?如果創造出美麗世界的造物主,比受造物都還要好,為什麼我們要捨棄最好的,而將心思放在次等的事物上(這裡所說得次等事物,是指肉體的情欲)呢?我們從出生以來,就一直與肉體生活在一起,緊密相連,我們的心靈尚未領受過由至高至善的那一位帶給我們的完美經歷。然而,如果我們的心靈能夠長時間以自律來制伏享樂,並且留意於神聖事物,就能逐漸與肉體脫離這樣的關係,在神性事物中漸漸提昇自我,並且真正認識到自己的高貴性,最終獲得轉化,全心全意追求上帝。
72. God created the invisible world and the visible world, and naturally he made the soul and the body as well. Now if this visible world is so beautiful, what sort of world will the invisible be? If it is better than the former, how much better than both is the one who created them? If then the Maker of everything that is beautiful is better than all creatures, for what reason does the mind leave the best of all to be engrossed in the worst of all, by which I mean the passions of the flesh? Or is it not clear that having lived and associated with the flesh from birth, the mind has not yet received a perfect experience of the one who is best of all and who transcends all? Therefore if by a prolonged exercise of self-mastery over pleasure and of attention to divine things we gradually break it away from such a relationship, it expands and gradually advances in divine things and recognizes its own dignity and finally transfers its whole longing onto God.

 

73. 一個能以公正的態度來談論弟兄的錯誤的人,他之所以會這麼做,必定是為了兩個理由,要不就是為了改正這位弟兄的錯誤,要不就是為了幫助他人。如果他不是以這種心態來告訴這位弟兄,或是其他的人,那麼他所做的就是一種侮辱與誹謗。他無法避免被上帝拋棄,他必定會陷入同樣或其它的失敗中,而後受到他人的不尊重與侮辱,他會發現自己顏面盡失。
73. The one who speaks in a detached way of his brother’s sins does so for two reasons, either to correct him or to help someone else. If he speaks apart from these either to him or to another, he does so with reproach and disparagement. He will not escape being forsaken by God but will surely fall into the same or another failure, and dishonored and reproached by others he will find disgrace.

 

74. 事實上,人之所以不斷犯下相同的罪,背後通常有很多的原因,不會只有單一因素。例如:因為習慣而犯罪,或是因為沒有自制力而犯罪。如果某人因為沒有自制力而犯罪,不論是犯罪之前或之後,他都不會進行徹底審慎的思考,而是在犯罪之後,才感到萬分的懊悔。然而,如果某人是因為習慣而犯罪,情況就會大不相同。首先,他在思想上不會停止犯罪,而且在犯了罪之後,他依然會維持著相同的犯罪傾向。
74. There is not just one reason why sinners commit the same sin in deed, but several. For instance, it is one thing to sin from habit and another to sin by being carried away. In this case the sinner did not fully reflect either before or after the sin but rather was deeply grieved over the incident. The one who sins from habit is quite the reverse, for first he does not cease sinning in thought and after the act he maintains the same disposition.

 

75. 一個出於虛榮心而追求美德的人,也會為了虛榮心而尋求知識。這樣的人,從不為了自己道德的提昇而有言行上的表現,他們時時刻刻都在尋求旁人的認可。一旦有旁觀者強烈的指責他的言行,他的情欲就會浮現出來,並感受到強烈痛苦。這不是因為他不受教,因為這本來就不是他目的,他們之所以會感到痛苦,完全是因為自己的顏面掃地。
75. The one who seeks after the virtues out of vainglory obviously seeks after knowledge as well out of vainglory. Clearly such a person neither does nor says anything for the sake of improvement but is in all circumstances pursuing the approval of the onlookers or hearers. The passion is detected when some of these people impose censure on his deeds or his words and he is enormously grieved thereby, not because he did not edify, for such was not his purpose, but because of his own disgrace.

 

76. 當一個人只樂於接受,而不樂意付出時,心中就會升起貪慾。這樣的人無法成為一位好的管理人。
76. The passion of greed is revealed when one is happy in receiving but unhappy in giving. Such a person cannot be a good steward.

 

77. 人往往會因為以下原因而忍受痛苦:因為對上帝的愛、因為期待得到報償、因為害怕受到懲罰、因為害怕某些人、因為出於天性、為了得到快樂和利益、為了虛榮心、為了自己的某些需求。
77. A person endures suffering for these reasons: for the love of God, for the hope of a reward, out of a fear of punishment, out of fear of men, through nature, for pleasure, for profit, out of vainglory, or out of necessity.

 

78. 從想法中或者從情欲中解脫,其實是同的一件事。事實上,如果那件激起情欲的事沒有出現的時候,人們往往可以很容易的從中解脫出來,但情欲卻深藏在靈魂的深處,一旦情欲渴求的對象出現,情欲也會跟著出現。因此,當情欲渴求的對象出現之時,我們有必要時時覺察自己的心,好確定是那一個部分使我們陷入迷戀之中。
78. It is one thing to be delivered from thoughts and another to be freed from passions. In fact someone may be often delivered from thoughts of those objects in their absence toward which he has acquired a passion, but the passions are hidden in the soul and are revealed when the objects appear. Therefore it is necessary to observe the mind when the objects are present and determine for which of them it holds an attachment.

 

79. 真正的朋友,即使面對各種誘惑,還是會選擇支持身邊的朋友,並且將對方的苦難與不幸,視作自己的困境,與對方一同面對。即使付出許多,也不會四處抱怨或炫耀。
79. That is a genuine friend if in time of temptation he supports his neighbor by bearing as his own, without clamor or display, his incidental tribulation, suffering, and misfortunes.

 

80. 請不要忽視「良知」的聲音,因為,它總是能夠告訴你最好的作法和選擇。事實上,「良知」能夠給我們充滿神性和天使性的建議,它使你面對心中不可見人的污點時,超脫它們對你的束縛,它使你在離世的那一刻、去到上帝面前時,感覺與上帝十分親密。
80. Do not disregard your conscience when it always recommends the best choices. In fact, it proposes to you divine and angelic advice; it frees you from your heart’s secret defilements, and grants you familiarity before God at the moment of departure.

 

81. 如果你想要變得謹慎又有節制,不做「自負」的奴隸,請務必用心尋求藏在知識深處的真義。尋找的過程中,你將會遭遇許多困惑,也會驚訝於自己的無知,這樣就能漸漸降伏「自負」。在瞭解自己的過程中,你將會瞭解許多偉大的、美妙的事物,畢竟想著自己「都已經知道了」,就很難再增進自己的知識。
81. If you want to become judicious and moderate and no servant of the passion of conceit, always seek in things what is hidden from your knowledge. You will indeed find a great many diverse things which have eluded you, and you will be astonished at your own ignorance and temper your pride. And in knowing yourself you will understand many great and wonderful things, since to think that one knows does not allow one to advance in knowledge.

 

82. 一個正在接收治療,並且在療程中十分配合的人,一定很渴望能夠被治癒:我們可以將這些治療比喻為我們在各種情況下遭遇到的痛苦。那些拒絕接受痛苦的人,直到過世為止,對於這些痛苦帶給人的益處,是完全無知的。
82. A person definitely wants to be healed if he does not put up any resistance to the healing remedies: These are the pains and hurts brought on by many different circumstances. The one who resists does not know what is being worked out here nor what advantage he would draw from it when he leaves this world.

 

83. 虛榮與貪慾是交互影響的。以世俗的觀點來看,虛榮助長財富,財富助長虛榮,然而這只是世俗的觀點。對出家僧侶而言,越是覺得自己清貧,越容易產生虛榮心。一個有財產的僧侶,往往以羞愧的心將錢暗藏起來,好像財富對他沒有任何吸引力。
83. Vainglory and greed are mutually begotten of each other, for while the vain grow rich, the rich grow vain, but only in a worldly sense. Since the monk is without possessions he becomes all the more vain, and when he does have money he hides it in shame as something unbecoming to his calling.

 

84. 僧侶的虛榮心所招致的典型結果,就是使他對自己一切美德感到自大。驕傲會使他對自己的善行過度得意,變得目中無人。他會以為這些善行都是自己的功勞,而不是將功勞歸於上帝。世俗人的虛榮心和傲慢所招致的典型結果,就是他會為了自己的外表、財富、地位而洋洋得意,變成一個自大的人。
84. It is characteristic of a monk’s vainglory that he become vain about his virtue and whatever is associated with it. It is characteristic of his pride that he be elated over his good deeds, dismiss other people, and ascribe these deeds to himself and not to God. It is characteristic of the worldly person’s vainglory and pride that he be vain and elated over appearances, wealth, position, and pride.

 

85. 世俗人的一切成就,對出家僧侶而言,就像一種災難;反之,出家僧侶的一切成就,對世間人而言,也是一種不幸。舉例來說,世俗人的成就有:財富、名聲、地位、奢華、身體的享受、好孩子…等相關事物。如果將這些成就加諸於某位出家僧侶的身上,他就成為一位失敗的僧侶。反過來說,出家僧侶的成就有:拋棄一切財產、名聲…等,還有自律、安忍…等精神成就。如果這些成就發生在某位世俗人身上,他會覺得為什麼總是事與願違,好像被厄運纏身。事實上,有些人確實是如此。
85. The achievements of those in the world are misfortunes for monks, and the achievements of monks are misfortunes for those in the world. For instance the achievements of those in the world are wealth, fame, position, luxury, bodily comfort, fine children, and what is associated with these. If a monk comes to this, he is lost. On the other hand the monk’s achievements are to be without possessions, fame, or influence, also self-mastery, endurance, and what is associated with these. If these things happen to a man of the world against his will he considers it a great misfortune and often comes close to hanging himself ; indeed, some have done so.

 

86. 食物是為了以下兩個理由而被創造:滋養與治療。因此,為了欲望而享用食物,是一種誤用,內心的貪慾應該受到譴責。無論是什麼,如果不瞭解使用的真正目的而誤用,就是一種罪。
86. Food was created for two reasons, for nourishment and for healing. Therefore those who take it for any other reason misuse what has been given for their use and are condemned for their luxury. And as with everything, misuse is sin.

 

87. 謙卑就是要不斷地祈禱,和淚水與苦難同在,因為在樣的情形下,我們會請求上帝的幫忙,而不會愚蠢的相信自己的力量和智慧,也不會自大的對待他人,而這些都是一些危險的疾病,都是驕傲的情欲。
87. Humility is continual prayer with tears and suffering. For this constant calling on God for help does not allow us to trust foolishly in our own strength and wisdom nor to be arrogant toward others. These are the dangerous diseases of the passion of pride.

 

88. 一方面,我們在對抗內心的小念頭時,要小心不要去擾動情欲。另一方面,在對抗心中的情欲時,要留意不要向它們妥協。在這兩種情況下,我們的心都不該疏忽怠慢、猶豫不決。
88. It is one thing to fight against a simple thought so as not to arouse passion. It is another thing to fight a passionate thought to avoid giving consent. But in both of these ways the thoughts are not allowed to linger.

 

89. 憎恨與傷害是相連的。因此,如果在某人的心中,將某位弟兄的容貌與自己受的傷害聯想再一起,就會對他懷有怨恨。然而,「怨恨的道路導致死亡」(箴言12:28)因為「心中充滿怨恨的人就是違背上帝的律法的人」。
89. Hurt is linked to resentment. Thus when someone’s mind associates the face of a brother with hurt, it is clear that he bears him a grudge. But “the ways of the resentful lead to death,” because, “every resentful man is a transgressor of the law.”

 

90. 如果你怨恨著某人,請為此人祈禱,這樣才能遏止恨意的發展。藉著祈禱,你可以將「自己所受的傷害」與「記憶當中、他人對待你的惡行」分開,使「恨意」轉為「善意與愛」,完全將靈魂中的怨念去除。另一方面,如果其他人對你懷有怨恨,請用寬大、謙卑的心包容他,以公正的心對待他,你將會幫助他也脫離怨恨。
90. If you bear a grudge against anyone, pray for him and you will stop the passion in its tracks. By prayer you separate the hurt from the memory of the evil which he did you and in becoming loving and kind you completely obliterate passion from the soul. On the other hand, if someone else bears you a grudge, be generous and humble with him, treat him fairly, and you will deliver him from the passion.

 

91. 要抑制一個人的嫉妒心,使他的心不再受苦,需要費很大的功夫。因為在他心裡,你身上的好,就是他的失敗與不幸。唯一可行的做法,就是在他面前隱藏某些事情。然而,如果這些事情對許多人有益,卻會使他苦惱,你會怎麼抉擇呢?當然,你一定要為多數人服務,然而,在利益眾人的同時,也要盡力守護自己的心,不能讓情欲得逞。因為若是順著心中的情欲,應該報復的對象就會被混淆,你會想著如何去報復那個與你同樣受情欲所苦的人,忘記了你應該報復的對象是「情欲」本身。然而,如果我們的心能夠擺脫情欲的左右,就能以謙卑的心,將對方視為比自己高尚的人,並且無時無刻、在任何場合或情況下,欣賞對方勝過於欣賞自己。當你心中嫉妒的那個人喜悅時,你也與他一同喜悅,當你心中嫉妒的那個人傷心時,你也與他一同傷心,這樣你就能清楚察覺內心深處的嫉妒。這樣的做法,就是真正實踐了宗徒的教誨:「要和喜樂的人同喜樂,和哭泣的人同哭泣。」(羅馬書12:15)
91. You will check the hurt of the envious person with great difficulty, for he considers what he envies in you as his misfortune. It can be checked in no other way but in hiding something from him. But if the thing is helpful to many yet gives him grief, which side will you choose? It is certainly necessary to be of service to the many while still taking as much care as possible that you be not carried off by the vice of passion, since you could be retaliating not against the passion but against the one who is experiencing it. Instead, you will through humility regard him as above yourself and in every time, place, and situation prefer him to yourself. You will be able to check your own envy if you join the one you envy in rejoicing at what he rejoices at and grieving over what he grieves over. In this way you fulfill the Apostle’s words, “Rejoice with those who rejoice and weep with those who weep.”

 

92. 我們的心靈處在兩種活躍的勢力中間,一種是美善的道德,一種是敗壞的道德;換句話說,我們的心靈處在天使與惡魔當中。心靈能夠選擇自己想要的,心靈擁有力量可以追隨某一方、對抗另一方。
92. Our mind is in the middle of two things, each one active at its own work, the one at virtue, the other at vice, in other words between angel and devil. The mind has the power and strength to follow or oppose the one it chooses.

 

93. 神聖天使因為天性使然,亟欲幫助我們向善。另一方面,情欲與惡念則助長了惡魔的勢力。
93. On the one hand, the holy angels urge us on to the good, and natural tendencies and a good will assist us. On the other hand, passions and an evil will support the assaults of the demons.

 

94. 有時候,上帝會啟發某個純淨的心靈,並且教導它;有時候,神聖天使會特地籌劃某件好事;有時後,事物真實的本質會在「靜觀」中顯現。
94. Sometimes God himself lights on a pure mind and teaches it, sometimes the holy angels propose fine things, sometimes the nature of material reality is contemplated.

 

95. 如果心靈已經領受了知識,我們有必要讓心中的念頭免於情欲干擾,讓心靈保有安穩而無憂無懼的「靜觀」與「穩固而不受打擾的祈禱」。然而,即使如此,我們的心靈總是無法完全避免肉體的情欲或衝動影響到心中的念頭,因為惡魔會發明各種的詭計來矇騙我們的心靈。
95. It is necessary that the mind which has been granted knowledge keep its representations of things without passion, its contemplations secure, and its state of prayer untroubled. But it cannot always keep them from the impulses of the flesh, because it is blackened with smoke from the contrivance of demons.

 

96. 那些激怒我們的事,並不會使我們感到哀傷,因為使人哀傷的事,遠比使人動怒的事物多多了。譬如:某個東西壞了、掉了,或是某人過世了…等。一旦我們有反宗教的傾向,對於這些只會使我們哀傷的事,我們將會同時感受到哀傷與憤怒。
96. We are not grieved by the same things that anger us, for the things which produce grief are more numerous than those which produce anger. For instance one thing is broken, another is lost, such a person dies. For these things we have only grief, but for the others we experience both grief and anger so long as we are irreligiously disposed.

 

97. 當心靈接收到外在事物的形象時,它往往會跟隨著這些形象作改變。當我們的心靈針對不同事物進行靈性靜觀時,也是如此。然而,當心靈進入上帝之中,就會超脫所有的形象,因為,當心靈靜觀單純的上帝時,它也會變得單純,完全變成光的樣子。
97. When the mind receives the representations of things, it of course patterns itself after each representation. In contemplating them spiritually it is variously conformed to each object contemplated. But when it comes to be in God, it becomes wholly without form and pattern, for in contemplating the one who is simple it becomes simple and entirely patterned in light.

 

98. 全心全意向著上帝就是「完美的靈魂」。
98. The perfect soul is the one whose affective drive is wholly directed to God.

 

99. 藉由至高、誠正的信仰,去認識那不可知的「至高者」,達到大智若愚的至高境界,並且,從上帝在宇宙中所創作的一切當中,領受上帝的大能與審判中所蘊含的、人類理解範圍中的知識,這就是「完美的心靈」。
99. The perfect mind is the one that through genuine faith supremely knows in supreme ignorance the supremely unknowable, and in gazing on the universe of his handiwork has received from God comprehensive knowledge of his Providence and judgment in it, as far as allowable to men.

 

100. 時間被分為三,而「信」遍及了這三個部份,「望」遍及一個,而「愛」遍及了兩個。「信」與「望」穩定在某個特定的點,對無限的世代和永恆的圓滿而言,「愛」卻要與唯一的上帝,絕對的無限者合一。因此,「在這三者當中,最偉大的是愛。」
100. Time is divided in three, and faith extends to all three divisions, hope to one, love to two. Faith and hope remain to a certain point, but love for infinite ages in a supreme and ever abounding union with the one who is supremely infinite. And because of this, “the greatest of these is love.”